Text for 2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation National Overview

              U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
2011 National Survey of
Fishing, Hunting, and
Wildlife-Associated
Recreation
National Overview
Issued August 2012
Preliminary Findings
Director’s Message
From its monumental mountains and bountiful lands, to the great lakes and roving rivers, America the Beautiful is truly graced with an outdoors cherished more and more each day. The evidence is found in the 2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife Recreation.
This report demonstrates the value of Fish and Wildlife-Related Recreation to the American people by providing information on participation and expenditures for fishing, hunting and wildlife watching.
Wildlife-associated recreation not only sustains our spirit and connects us to each other and the natural world, but also provides significant financial support for wildlife conservation in our nation’s economy. According to preliminary information from the latest national survey, 90 million people, 38 percent of all Americans 16 years and older, participated in wildlife-related recreation in 2011 and spent $145 billion dollars. This spending supports thousands of jobs in industries and businesses connected to fishing, hunting and the observance of wildlife.
The National Survey is conducted every five years at the request of the State fish and wildlife agencies to measure the importance of wildlife-based recreation to the American people. The 2011 Survey represents the 12th in a series since 1955. Developed in collaboration with the States, the Association of Fish and WildlifeAgencies, and national conservation organizations, the Survey has become one of the most important sources of information on fish and wildlife recreation in the country.
It is an honor to present these findings to you in this unprecedented year as we celebrate the 75th anniversary of the Wildlife Sport Fish and Restoration Program – a celebration of partnerships to benefit fish and wildlife, and provide Americans access to the Great Outdoors through a self-imposed investment paid by manufacturers and users of gear purchased by anglers, boaters, and shooters and managed by Federal and State fish and wildlife agencies.
I express many thanks to the men and women who took time to participate in the survey as well as to the State fish and wildlife agencies for their financial support through the Multistate Conservation Grant Programs. Without this support, the 2011 Survey would not have been possible.
I would also like to express my sincere gratitude for the countless number of dedicated Americans who continue to enjoy and support wildlife conservation each and every day. I am grateful to the tremendous partnership successes that help to lay the groundwork for the future of conservation across our beloved nation.
Daniel Ashe
Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceU.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
2011 National Survey of
Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation
National Overview
Issued August 2012
Preliminary Findings2 2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation: National Overview
Preface
USFWS
Preliminary information from the 2011
National Survey of Fishing, Hunting,
and Wildlife-Associated Recreation
(FHWAR) is provided in this report. The
final National Report will be available in
November 2012.
The Survey is a partnership effort
with state agencies and national
conservation organizations and has
become one of the most important
sources of information on fish and
wildlife-related recreation in the United
States. The Survey collects information
on participation and expenditures for
hunting, fishing, and wildlife-watching
activities such as observing, feeding, and
photographing wildlife.
The advance release of preliminary
survey results is an effort to make the
data available as soon as possible. Please
note that the data are subject to revision.
2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation: National Overview 3
Foreword
USFWS
The 2011 National Survey of Fishing,
Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated
Recreation is the twelfth in a series
of surveys that have been conducted
every five years since 1955. The purpose
of the Survey is to collect and report
information on the number of people who
fished, hunted, and wildlife watched, the
extent of their activity, and the money
they spent on their activities in 2011.
The Survey is conducted at the request
of State wildlife management agencies
through the Association of Fish and
Wildlife Agencies, and is coordinated
by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Funding comes from the Multistate
Conservation Grant Programs
authorized by the Wildlife and Sport Fish
Restoration Programs Improvement
Act of 2000. The Survey was developed
with assistance from representatives of
State agencies, national conservation
organizations, and related industries.
Results are based on data collected by
the U.S. Census Bureau. The Census
Bureau contacted 48,627 households for
interviews. Samples of 16,371 potential
anglers and hunters and 13,861 potential
wildlife watchers were selected from
those households to be interviewed
in detail about their participation and
expenditures. The Census Bureau
conducted detailed interviews in three
different waves, which began in April and
September of 2011 and January of 2012.
Interviews were completed in May 2012.
The survey methodology used in 2011
was similar to that used for the 2006,
2001, 1996, and 1991 Surveys, so the
estimates are comparable.
An outlier analysis was done on the
special equipment and land ownership
expenditure data. A purchase was
flagged it if was over $60,000. If the
item was reported by more than one
household member or double-reported
by a respondent, it was deleted. Also, if
the respondent’s income level was not
high enough to support such a purchase it
was assumed the respondent gave us the
total value of their recreation equipment
instead of the amount spent that year,
and the amount was deleted. Twenty-six
expenditure items were deleted.
4 2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation: National Overview
Preliminary Report
In 2011 90.1 million Americans, 38%
of the U.S. population 16 years old
and older, enjoyed some form of
fishing, hunting or wildlife-associated
recreation. Outdoor recreation is a huge
contributor to our nation’s economy.
Expenditures by hunters, anglers and
wildlife-recreationists were $145.0 billion.
This equates to 1% of gross domestic
product; meaning one out of every one
hundred dollars of all goods and services
produced in the U.S. is due to wildlife-related
recreation.
Almost 37.4 million Americans
participated in fishing, hunting or both
sports in 2011. These sportsmen and
women spent $43.2 billion on equipment,
$32.2 billion on trips, and $14.6 billion
on licenses and fees, membership dues
and contributions, land leasing and
ownership, and plantings for hunting.
On average, each sportsperson spent
$2,407 in 2011.
Although the Survey focuses on
collecting information on people 16 years
of age and older who participated in
wildlife-related recreation in 2011, it does
include some information on 6 to 15-year-olds.
Data available from the FHWAR
Survey screen reveals 1.8 million 6 to 15
year olds hunted, 8.5 million fished, and
11.7 million watched wildlife.
The Survey measures the number of
people who participated in wildlife-related
recreation in 2011 and is not
intended to reflect the total number of
wildlife-related recreationists in the
U.S. Many individuals can be considered
hunters and anglers even though they did
not participate in 2011.
USFWS
2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation: National Overview 5
Fishing Expenditures: 2011
Total Anglers and Anglers by Water Type: 2011
Fishing
As one of the most popular outdoor recreational activities in the United States, fishing attracted 33.1 million individuals 16 years old and older in 2011. These anglers spent an average of 17 days fishing. Freshwater, excluding Great Lakes, fishing was the most popular type of fishing with 27.1 million anglers devoting 443 million days to the sport. Great Lakes and saltwater fishing were also popular with 1.7 million and 8.9 million anglers, respectively.
Anglers spent $41.8 billion on trips, equipment, licenses, and other items to support their fishing activities in 2011. The average expenditure per angler was $1,261. Trip-related spending on food, lodging, transportation and other trip costs totaled $21.8 billion, which is 52% of all angler spending. Spending on equipment was $15.5 billion and comprised 37% of spending. Magazines, membership dues and contributions, licenses, and other fishing expenditures accounted for 11% at $4.5 billion.
Comparing results from the 2011 FHWAR Survey with those of the 2006 Survey reveals the number of anglers increased 11%. The biggest increase was by Great Lakes anglers, a 17% increase in participation. The increases for saltwater and non-Great Lakes freshwater angling participation were 15% and 8%, respectively.
While participation in fishing increased from 2006 to 2011, total fishing-related expenditures declined 11%. Expenditures for fishing equipment such as rods, reels, poles, and tackle did not decline, however. All pre-2011 expenditures in this report were adjusted to be in 2011 dollars.
Equipment: 37%Total: $41.8 billionFood: 13%Lodging: 5%Transportation: 15%Other Expenditures: 9%Licences and Fees: 1%Other Trip Costs: 19%Saltwater: 8.9 millionGreat Lakes: 1.7 millionFreshwater except Great Lakes: 27.1 millionTotal Anglers: 33.1 million0 Millions5101520253035
Anglers: 2001–2011
Angler Expenditures: 2001–2011
Average Angler Expenditures: 2001–2011
201120062001Millions03551015202530201120062001Billions of dollars01020304050201120062001Dollars04008001,2001,6002,000$1,324$1,576$1,2616 2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation: National Overview
Comparing the 2001 and 2011 Survey estimates reveals no statistically significant change1 in the number of anglers. Overall spending declined 7%. The category of spending that experienced the greatest decrease (–44%) was special equipment, which are big-ticket items such as boats and recreational vehicles. Expenditures for fishing equipment did not change, similar to the 2006–2011 trend.
Hunting
In 2011 13.7 million people, 6% of the U.S. population 16 years old and older, went hunting. Hunters in the U.S. spent an average of 21 days pursuing wild game. Big game like elk, deer and wild turkey attracted 11.6 million hunters (85%) who spent 212 million days afield. Over 4.5 million (33%) pursued small game including squirrels, rabbits, quails, and pheasants on 51 million days. Migratory birds, such as geese, ducks and doves, attracted 2.6 million hunters (19%) who spent 23 million days hunting. Hunting for other animals such as coyotes, groundhogs and raccoons attracted 2.2 million hunters (16%) who spent 34 million days afield.
Hunters spent $34.0 billion on trips, equipment, licenses, and other items to support their hunting activities in 2011. The average expenditure per hunter was $2,484. Total trip-related expenditures comprised 31% of all spending at $10.4 billion. Other expenditures, such as licenses, stamps, land leasing and ownership, and plantings totaled
1 Changes are judged to be significant if they are at the 95% level. This means that for 95% of all possible samples, the estimate for one survey year cannot be shown to be different from the estimate for the other survey year. Approximate standard errors were used.
Hunting Expenditures: 2011
Total Hunters and Type of Hunting: 2011
Equipment: 41%Food: 9%Lodging: 2%Transportation: 14%Other Expenditures: 25%Licences and Fees: 3%Other Trip Costs: 5%Total: $34.0 billionMigratory Birds: 2.6 millionOther Animals: 2.2 millionSmall Game: 4.5 millionBig Game: 11.6 millionTotal Hunters: 13.7 million0 Millions246810121416
Hunters: 2001–2011
Hunter Expenditures: 2001–2011
Average Hunter Expenditures: 2001–2011
201120062001Millions01424681012201120062001Billions of dollars010203040201120062001Dollars0$2,001$2,050$2,484500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation: National Overview 7
$9.6 billion, 28% of all spending. Spending on equipment such as guns, camping equipment, and 4-wheel drives comprised 41% of spending with $14.0 billion.
Overall hunting participation increased 9% from 2006 to 2011. The numbers of big game hunters rose 8%, migratory bird hunters increased 13%, and hunters seeking other animals increased by 92%. The number of small game hunters declined 6%, which is not statistically significant.
Total hunting-related spending increased between 2006 and 2011. There was a 30% increase over the five-year period. Purchases of hunting equipment such as guns, decoys, and ammunition increased 29%. The category with the biggest increase was land leasing and ownership with 50%. Trip-related spending was up 39%.
The 10-year comparison of the 2001 and 2011 Surveys shows an increase in both the number of hunters and their expenditures. Overall participation was up 5% over the time period. Big game hunting increased 6%. Small game and migratory bird hunting had declines of 17% and 13%, respectively. Other animal hunting increased 107%. Total hunting expenditures increased 27%. Expenditures for hunting equipment, such as firearms, ammunition, and archery equipment, increased 33%.
Wildlife Watching
Wildlife watching is a favorite pastime for millions in the U.S. Nearly 71.8 million people 16 years old and older fed, photographed, and observed wildlife in 2011. They spent $55.0 billion on their activities. The Survey defines wildlife watching as participants either taking a “special interest” in wildlife around their homes or taking a trip for the “primary purpose” of wildlife watching. Wildlife-watching activities such as incidentally observing wildlife while gardening are not included.
Of the 71.8 million people who engaged in wildlife watching in 2011, 22.5 million (31%) participated by taking trips away from home and 68.6 million (96%) participated around their home. Away-from-home participants are defined as those who travel a mile or more from home to engage in wildlife watching, and around-the-home participants are those who wildlife watch less than a mile of home.
Wildlife Watching Expenditures: 2011
Total Wildlife Watchers and Type of Participants: 2011
Equipment: 50%Food: 10%Lodging: 7%Transportation: 11%Other Expenditures: 19%Other Trip Costs: 3%Total: $55.0 billionPhotograph Wildlife: 12.4 millionFeed Birds or Other Wildlife: 5.4 millionObserve Wildlife: 19.8 millionObserve Wildlife: 45.0 millionPhotograph Wildlife: 25.4 millionTotal Around-the-Home Participants: 68.6 millionVisit Public Parks or Areas: 12.3 millionMaintain Plantings or Natural Areas: 13.4 millionFeed Birds or Other Wildlife: 52.8 millionTotal Away-from-Home Participants: 22.5 millionTotal Wildlife-Watching Participants: 71.8 million0Millions10203040506070808 2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation: National Overview
Bird Observers: 2011
1020304050Away-from-Home Observers: 17.8 millionAround-the-Home Observers: 41.3 millionTotal Bird Observers: 46.7 million0 Millions
Wildlife Watchers: 2001–2011
Wildlife Watcher Expenditures:
2001–2011
Average Wildlife Watcher Expenditures: 2001–2011
201120062001Millions020406080201120062001Billions of dollars020406080201120062001Dollars02004006008001,000$735$719$766
Nearly all people who wildlife watched did so around the home. For the 68.6 million around-the-home participants, feeding wildlife was the most popular activity. Over 52.8 million individuals, 74% of all wildlife watchers, fed wildlife around their home. Over 45.0 million people (63%) observed wildlife and 25.4 million (35%) photographed wildlife around their home. Over 12.3 million (17%) visited parks or natural areas to view wildlife and 13.4 million (19%) maintained plantings or natural areas for the benefit of wildlife within a mile of their home.
About a third of all wildlife watchers took trips a mile or more from home to observe, photograph, or feed wildlife. Observing wildlife was the most popular activity, with 19.8 million participants, 88% of all away-from-home wildlife watchers. Almost 12.4 million people (55%) photographed fish and wildlife away from home; 5.4 million (24%) enjoyed feeding wildlife while on trips.
Comparing the 2011 Survey with the two previous surveys shows no significant change from 2006 to 2011 and a 9% increase from 2001 to 2011 in overall wildlife-watching participation. From 2006 to 2011 there was no change in the number of participants for either around-the-home or away-from-home wildlife watching. From 2001 to 2011 the number of around-the-home participants increased by 9% while there was no significant change in the number of away-from-home participants.
Overall expenditures pursuant to wildlife watching increased 7% from 2006 to 2011 and 13% from 2001 to 2011. The amount of trip-related expenditures from 2006 to 2011 increased 20% and 67% from 2001 to 2011. From 2006 to 2011 spending for wildlife-watching and special equipment did not change significantly.2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation: National Overview 9
Summary
With more than 90.1 million Americans
16 years of age and older participating
in 2011, wildlife-related recreation is
clearly an important leisure activity in
the U.S. An average of nearly four out
of ten people you meet will participate
in some type of wildlife recreation.
By comparison, there were 36 million
recreational runners in 2009.
Wildlife recreation is not only an
important leisure activity but it is
also a catalyst for economic growth.
Hunters, anglers and wildlife watchers
spent $145.0 billion on wildlife-related
recreation in 2011. This spending
contributed to local economies
throughout the country, which added to
employment, raised economic output, and
generated tax revenue.
The next report of preliminary findings
will contain State data and will be
available in August of 2012. This and
future Survey reports will also be
available on our web page at http://
wsfrprograms.fws.gov/home.html.
USFWS
10 2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation: National Overview
List of Tables
1. Anglers and Hunters 16 Years Old
and Older, Days of Participation
and Trips, by Type of Fishing and
Hunting in the U.S.: 2011
2. Summary of Expenditures in the
U.S. for Fishing and Hunting: 2011
3. Expenditures in the U.S. for
Fishing: 2011
4. Expenditures in the U.S. for
Hunting: 2011
5. Wildlife-Watching Participants
16 Years Old and Older, by Primary
Activity: 2011
6. Primary Nonresidential Participants
by Wildlife Observed, Photographed,
or Fed and Place in the U.S.: 2011
7. Wild Bird Observers and Days of
Observation: 2011
8. Expenditures in the U.S. for
Wildlife-Watching Participation: 2011
9. Comparison of Wildlife-Related
Recreation Participation: 2006
and 2011
10. Comparison of Wildlife-Related
Recreation Participation: 2001
and 2011
11. Comparison of Wildlife-Related
Recreation Expenditures: 2006
and 2011
12. Comparison of Wildlife-Related
Recreation Expenditures: 2001
and 2011
USFWS
2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation: National Overview 11
Type of fishing and hunting
Participants
Days of participation
Trips
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Total Sportspersons
37,397
100
835,725
100
711,645
100
Fishing
Total, all fishing
33,112
100
553,841
100
455,005
100
Total, all freshwater
27,547
83
455,862
82
368,805
81
Freshwater, except Great Lakes
27,060
82
443,223
80
353,620
78
Great Lakes
1,665
5
19,661
4
15,185
3
Saltwater
8,889
27
99,474
18
86,200
19
Hunting
Total, all hunting
13,674
100
281,884
100
256,640
100
Big game
11,570
85
212,116
75
167,320
65
Small game
4,506
33
50,884
18
43,135
17
Migratory bird
2,583
19
23,263
8
21,315
8
Other animals
2,168
16
34,434
12
24,869
10
Note: Detail does not add to total because of multiple responses.
Table 1. Anglers and Hunters 16 Years Old and Older, Days of Participation, and Trips by Type of Fishing and Hunting: 2011
12 2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation: National Overview
Expenditure Item
Expenditures
Spenders
Amount (thousands of dollars)
Average per sportsperson (dollars)1
Number (thousands)
Percent of sportspersons
Average per spender (dollars)1
Total, all items
90,002,368
2,407
35,990
96
2,501
Trip-Related Expenditures
Total trip-related
32,210,653
861
33,507
90
961
Food and lodging, total
11,592,622
310
29,048
78
399
Food
8,653,068
231
28,773
77
301
Lodging
2,939,554
79
7,422
20
396
Transportation, total
11,029,451
295
29,691
79
371
Public
1,107,975
30
2,760
7
401
Private
9,921,476
265
28,843
77
344
Other trip costs2
9,588,580
256
26,804
72
358
Equipment Expenditures
Fishing equipment
6,179,132
165
21,920
59
282
Hunting equipment
8,182,297
219
11,585
31
706
Auxiliary equipment3
3,736,648
100
11,198
30
334
Special equipment4
25,129,326
672
3,990
11
6,298
Other Expenditures
Magazines, books, DVDs
319,781
9
6,053
16
53
Membership dues and contributions
1,122,787
30
5,394
14
208
Land leasing and ownership
10,832,158
290
2,935
8
3,691
Licenses, stamps, tags, and permits
1,586,985
42
24,099
64
66
Plantings (for hunting)
702,601
19
1,273
3
552
1 Average expenditures are annual estimates.
2 Other trip costs include guide fees, pack trip or package fees, public and private land use fees, equipment rental, boating costs (which include launching, mooring, storage, maintenance, insurance, pumpout fees, and fuel), bait, ice, and heating and cooking fuel.
3 Auxiliary equipment includes camping equipment, binoculars, special fishing and hunting clothing, processing and taxidermy costs, foul weather gear, boots, waders, field glasses, telescopes, and electronic equipment such as a GPS device.
4 Special equipment includes boats, campers, cabins, trail bikes, dune buggies, 4 x 4 vehicles, ATVs, 4-wheelers, snowmobiles, pickups, vans, travel and tent trailers, motor homes, house trailers, recreational vehicles (RVs) and other special equipment.
Note: Detail does not add to total because of multiple responses. Detail in subsequent Preliminary Tables may not add to totals shown here because of nonresponse to individual questions.
Table 2. Summary of Expenditures for Fishing and Hunting: 2011
(Population 16 years old and older.)2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation: National Overview 13
Expenditure Item
Expenditures
Spenders
Amount (thousands of dollars)
Average per angler (dollars)1
Number (thousands)
Percent of anglers
Average per spender (dollars)1
Total, all items
41,769,129
1,261
30,289
91
1,379
Trip-Related Expenditures
Total trip-related
21,789,465
658
29,309
89
743
Food and lodging, total
7,711,318
233
25,158
76
307
Food
5,435,208
164
24,891
75
218
Lodging
2,276,110
69
5,983
18
380
Transportation, total
6,261,536
189
25,293
76
248
Public
803,771
24
2,222
7
362
Private
5,457,766
165
24,504
74
223
Other trip costs, total
7,816,610
236
25,143
76
311
Guide fees, pack trip or package fees
1,102,375
33
2,946
9
374
Public land use fees
237,887
7
4,190
13
57
Private land use fees
243,705
7
1,744
5
140
Equipment rental
245,547
7
1,872
6
131
Boating costs2
3,815,819
115
7,929
24
481
Bait
1,497,445
45
19,717
60
76
Ice
509,494
15
13,400
40
38
Heating and cooking fuel
164,337
5
3,810
12
43
Equipment Expenditures
Fishing equipment, total
6,141,895
185
21,527
65
285
Rods, reels, poles, and rodmaking components
2,366,774
71
10,651
32
222
Lines and leaders
593,398
18
13,756
42
43
Artificial lures, flies, baits, and dressing for flies or lines
1,169,092
35
15,560
47
75
Hooks, sinkers, swivels, and other items attached to a line except lures and baits
628,600
19
16,496
50
38
Tackle boxes
141,789
4
4,271
13
33
Creels, stringers, fish bags, landing nets, and gaff hooks
131,515
4
3,655
11
36
Minnow traps, seines, and bait containers
81,008
2
3,172
10
26
Depth finders, fish finders, and other electronic fishing devices
469,849
14
938
3
501
Ice fishing equipment
241,328
7
637
2
379
Other fishing equipment
318,542
10
4,228
13
75
Auxiliary equipment, total
1,106,865
33
4,420
13
250
Camping equipment
385,633
12
1,976
6
195
Binoculars, field glasses, telescopes, etc.
85,522
3
410
1
208
Special fishing clothing, rubber boots, waders, and foul weather gear
318,382
10
2,472
7
129
Processing and taxidermy costs
82,766
2
188
1
440
Other
234,562
7
720
2
326
Special equipment3
8,257,673
249
2,296
7
3,596
Other Expenditures
Magazines, books, DVDs
108,308
3
2,483
8
44
Membership dues and contributions
321,990
10
1,728
5
186
Land leasing and ownership
3,442,243
104
924
3
3,724
Licenses, stamps, tags, and permits, total
600,690
18
17,166
52
35
Licenses
551,824
17
16,233
49
34
Stamps, tags, and permits
48,867
1
3,726
11
13
1 Average expenditures are annual estimates.
2 Boating costs include launching, mooring, storage, maintenance, insurance, pumpout fees, and fuel.
3 Special equipment includes boats, campers, cabins, trail bikes, dune buggies, 4 x 4 vehicles, ATVs, 4-wheelers, snowmobiles, pickups, vans, travel and tent trailers, motor homes, house trailers, recreational vehicles (RVs) and other special equipment.
Note: Detail does not add to total because of multiple responses.
Table 3. Expenditures for Fishing: 2011
(Population 16 years old and older.)14 2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation: National Overview
Expenditure Item
Expenditures
Spenders
Amount (thousands of dollars)
Average per hunter (dollars)1
Number (thousands)
Percent of hunters
Average per spender (dollars)1
Total, all items
33,962,667
2,484
13,364
98
2,541
Trip-Related Expenditures
Total trip-related
10,421,189
762
11,914
87
875
Food and lodging, total
3,881,304
284
10,289
75
377
Food
3,217,859
235
10,253
75
314
Lodging
663,444
49
1,881
14
353
Transportation, total
4,767,915
349
10,990
80
434
Public
304,204
22
648
5
469
Private
4,463,711
326
10,885
80
410
Other trip costs, total
1,771,970
130
4,581
34
387
Guide fees, pack trip or package fees
493,913
36
1,024
7
482
Public land use fees
40,447
3
709
5
57
Private land use fees
755,087
55
1,193
9
633
Equipment rental
62,747
5
490
4
128
Boating costs2
213,817
16
519
4
412
Heating and cooking fuel
205,959
15
2,817
21
73
Equipment Expenditures
Hunting equipment, total
7,738,324
566
10,400
76
744
Firearms
3,050,322
223
3,007
22
1,015
Rifles
1,429,097
105
1,695
12
843
Shotguns
914,619
67
1,213
9
754
Muzzleloaders, primitive firearms
122,035
9
370
3
330
Pistols, handguns
584,570
43
901
7
649
Bows, arrows, archery equipment
934,847
68
2,829
21
331
Telescopic sights
530,655
39
1,748
13
304
Decoys and game calls
301,995
22
2,738
20
110
Ammunition
1,298,456
95
8,828
65
147
Hand loading equipment
199,019
15
1,262
9
158
Hunting dogs and associated costs
951,110
70
1,007
7
945
Other
471,920
35
3,125
23
151
Auxiliary equipment, total
1,844,880
135
5,101
37
362
Camping equipment
159,853
12
570
4
280
Binoculars, field glasses, telescopes, etc.
287,186
21
1,210
9
237
Special hunting clothing, rubber boots, waders, and foul weather gear
570,308
42
3,082
23
185
Processing and taxidermy costs
672,759
49
2,055
15
327
Other
154,774
11
619
5
250
Special equipment3
4,389,286
321
613
4
7,159
Other Expenditures
Magazines, books, DVDs
107,272
8
1,934
14
55
Membership dues and contributions
382,817
28
1,885
14
203
Land leasing and ownership
7,389,915
540
2,279
17
3,242
Licenses, stamps, tags, and permits, total
986,385
72
10,214
75
97
Licenses
786,227
57
9,746
71
81
Federal duck stamps
33,094
2
2,206
16
15
Stamps, tags, and permits
167,064
12
3,554
26
47
Plantings
702,601
51
1,273
9
552
1 Average expenditures are annual estimates.
2 Boating costs include launching, mooring, storage, maintenance, insurance, pumpout fees, and fuel.
3 Special equipment includes boats, campers, cabins, trail bikes, dune buggies, 4 x 4 vehicles, ATVs, 4-wheelers, snowmobiles, pickups, vans, travel and tent trailers, motor homes, house trailers, recreational vehicles (RVs) and other special equipment.
Note: Detail does not add to total because of multiple responses.
Table 4. Expenditures for Hunting: 2011
(Population 16 years old and older.)2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation: National Overview 15
Activity
Number
Percent
Total participants
71,776
100
Away from home
22,496
31
Observe wildlife
19,808
28
Photograph wildlife
12,354
17
Feed wildlife
5,399
8
Around the home
68,598
96
Observe wildlife
45,046
63
Photograph wildlife
25,370
35
Feed wildlife
52,817
74
Visit parks or natural areas1
12,311
17
Maintain plantings or natural areas
13,399
19
1 Includes visits only to parks or natural areas within one mile of home.
Note: Detail does not add to total because of multiple responses.
Wildlife observed, photographed, or fed
Total participants
Participation by place
Total
In state of residence
In other states
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Total, all wildlife
22,496
100
22,496
100
18,529
82
6769
30
Total birds
18,924
84
18,924
100
16,037
85
6257
33
Songbirds (cardinals, robins, etc.)
12,120
54
12,120
100
10,616
88
3356
28
Birds of prey (hawks, eagles, etc.)
12,890
57
12,890
100
10,990
85
3917
30
Waterfowl (ducks, geese, etc.)
13,333
59
13,333
100
11,081
83
4231
32
Other water birds (shorebirds,
herons, cranes, etc.)
10,606
47
10,606
100
8,509
80
3483
33
Other birds (pheasants,
turkeys, road runners, etc.)
6,857
30
6,857
100
5,770
84
1790
26
Total land mammals
13,653
61
13,653
100
11,743
86
4180
31
Large land mammals (deer, bear, etc.)
10,369
46
10,369
100
8,702
84
3045
29
Small land mammals (squir
rel, prairie dog, etc.)
10,299
46
10,299
100
8,758
85
3299
32
Fish (salmon, shark, etc.)
6,358
28
6,358
100
4,964
78
2075
33
Marine mammals (whales, dolphins, etc.)
4,008
18
4,008
100
2,325
58
1864
47
Other wildlife (turtles, butterflies, etc.)
10,113
45
10,113
100
8,602
85
2865
28
Note: Detail does not add to total because of multiple responses. Column showing percent of total participants is based on the “Total, all wildlife” Numbers. Participation by place percent columns are based on the total Numbers of participants for each type of wildlife.
Table 5. Wildlife-Watching Participants by Type of Activity: 2011
(Population 16 years old and older. Numbers in thousands.)
Table 6. Away-From-Home Wildlife Watchers by Wildlife Observed, Photographed, or Fed and Place in the U.S.: 2011
(Population 16 years old and older. Numbers in thousands.)
Observers and days of observation
Number
Percent
Observers
Total bird observers
46,741
100
Around-the-home observers
41,346
88
Away-from-home observers
17,818
38
Days
Total days observing birds
5,161,909
100
Around the home
4,923,873
95
Away from home
238,036
5
Note: Detail does not add to total because of multiple responses.
Table 7. Wild Bird Observers and Days of Observation: 2011
(Population 16 years old and older. Numbers in thousands.)16 2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation: National Overview
Expenditure Item
Expenditures (thousands of dollars)
Spenders
Number (thousands)
Percent of wildlife-watching participants1
Average per spender (dollars)2
Total, all items3
54,961,547
55,980
78
982
Trip-Related Expenditures
Total trip-related
17,274,675
19,905
88
868
Food and lodging, total
9,349,439
17,017
76
549
Food
5,465,019
16,740
74
326
Lodging
3,884,420
6,851
30
567
Transportation, total
6,006,860
18,647
83
322
Public
2,521,247
3,029
13
832
Private
3,485,613
17,768
79
196
Other trip costs, total
1,918,376
9,359
42
205
Guide fees, pack trip or package fees
775,074
2,037
9
380
Public land use fees
239,021
6,212
28
38
Private land use fees
113,207
1,093
5
104
Equipment rental
141,017
1,485
7
95
Boating costs4
547,875
1,366
6
401
Heating and cooking fuel
102,182
2,302
10
44
Equipment and Other Expenses
Total
37,686,872
52,584
73
717
Wildlife-watching equipment, total
11,323,179
47,951
67
236
Binoculars, spotting scopes
918,567
5,057
7
182
Cameras, video cameras,
special lenses, and other photographic equipment
2,799,579
8,307
12
337
Film and photo processing
528,057
5,742
8
92
Bird food, total
4,068,161
36,956
51
110
Commercially
prepared and packaged wild bird food
3,133,968
34,263
48
91
Other bulk foods used to feed wild birds
934,194
13,271
18
70
Feed for other wildlife
1,012,964
9,987
14
101
Nest boxes, bird houses, feeders, baths
969,708
19,181
27
51
Day packs, carrying cases, and special clothing
855,196
6,483
9
132
Other wildlife-watching equipment (such as field guides and maps)
170,946
4,847
7
35
Auxiliary equipment, total
1,555,374
6,445
9
241
Tents, tarps
289,781
2,964
4
98
Frame packs and backpacking equipment
216,231
1,976
3
109
Other camping equipment
294,173
2,472
3
119
Other auxiliary equipment (such as blinds and GPS devices)
755,188
2,008
3
376
Special equipment, total
14,343,643
2,219
3
6,465
Off-the-road vehicle
6,475,469
486
1
13,326
T
ravel or tent trailer, pickup, camper, van, motor home, house trailer, recreational vehicle (RV)
5,868,982
518
1
11,331
Boats, boat accessories
1,703,305
1,175
2
1,449
Cabins
...
...
...
...
Other
289,263
246
(Z)
1,175
Magazines, books, DVDs
420,395
8,480
12
50
Land leasing and ownership
5,676,794
1,233
2
4,603
Membership dues and contributions
2,163,568
10,756
15
201
Plantings
2,203,920
8,818
12
250
… Sample size too small (less than 10) to report data reliably. (Z) Less than 0.5 percent.
1 Percent of wildlife-watching participants column is based on away-from-home participants for trip-related expenditures. For equipment and other expenditures the percent of wildlife-watching participants is based on total participants.
2 Average expenditures are annual estimates.
3 Information on trip-related expenditures was collected for away-from-home participants only. Equipment and other expenditures are based on information collected from both away-from-home and around-the-home participants.
4 Boating costs include launching, mooring, storage, maintenance, insurance, pumpout fees, and fuel.
Note: Detail does not add to total because of multiple responses and nonresponse.
Table 8. Expenditures for Wildlife Watching: 2011
(Population 16 years old and older.)2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation: National Overview 17
Type of Participation
2006
2011
2006–2011
% Change*
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Total Sportspersons
33,916
100
37,397
100
10%
Anglers, Total
29,952
100
33,112
100
11%
All freshwater
25,431
85
27,547
83
8%
Freshwater, except GL
25,035
84
27,060
82
8%
Great Lakes
1,420
5
1,665
5
17%
Saltwater
7,717
26
8,889
27
15%
Hunters, Total
12,510
100
13,674
100
9%
Big game
10,682
85
11,570
85
8%
Small game
4,797
38
4,506
33
–6%
Migratory bird
2,293
18
2,583
19
13%
Other animal
1,128
9
2,168
16
92%
Wildlife-Watching Participants, Total
71,132
100
71,776
100
1%
Around-the-Home
67,756
95
68,598
96
1%
Away-from-Home
22,977
32
22,496
31
–2%
Note: Detail does not add to total because of multiple responses and nonresponse.
*Not tested for significance level. Standard errors were not available at the time of printing.
Type of Participation
2001
2011
2001–2011
% Change*
Number
Percent
Number
Percent
Total Sportspersons
37,805
100
37,397
100
–1%
Anglers, Total
34,067
100
33,112
100
–3%
All freshwater
28,439
83
27,547
83
–3%
Freshwater, except GL
27,913
82
27,060
82
–3%
Great Lakes
1,847
5
1,665
5
–10%
Saltwater
9,051
26
8,889
27
–2%
Hunters, Total
13,034
100
13,674
100
5%
Big game
10,911
84
11,570
85
6%
Small game
5,434
42
4,506
33
–17%
Migratory bird
2,956
23
2,583
19
–13%
Other animal
1,047
8
2,168
16
107%
Wildlife-Watching Participants, Total
66,105
100
71,776
100
9%
Around-the-Home
62,928
95
68,598
96
9%
Away-from-Home
21,823
33
22,496
31
3%
Note: Detail does not add to total because of multiple responses and nonresponse.
*Not tested for significance level. Standard errors were not available at the time of printing.
Table 9. Comparison of Wildlife-Related Recreation Participation: 2006 and 2011
(U.S. population 16 years old and older. Number in thousands.)
Table 10. Comparison of Wildlife-Related Recreation Participation: 2001 and 2011
(U.S. population 16 years old and older. Number in thousands.)18 2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation: National Overview
Activity and Type of Expenditure
2006
2011
2006–2011
% Change*
Dollars
Percent
Dollars
Percent
Total Sportsperson
85,848,030
100
89,299,767
100
4%
Fishing, Total
47,052,459
100
41,769,129
100
–11%
Trip-Related
20,023,987
41
21,789,465
52
9%
Equipment
21,008,254
51
15,506,433
37
–26%
Fishing equipment
5,972,289
14
6,141,895
15
3%
Auxiliary equipment
872,189
3
1,106,865
3
27%
Special equipment
14,163,776
34
8,257,673
20
–42%
Other
6,020,218
9
4,473,231
11
–26%
Hunting, Total
25,640,335
100
33,260,066
100
30%
Trip-Related
7,480,048
25
10,421,189
31
39%
Equipment
12,019,281
55
13,972,490
42
16%
Hunting equipment
6,010,320
27
7,738,324
23
29%
Auxiliary equipment
1,489,842
6
1,844,880
6
24%
Special equipment
4,519,119
22
4,389,286
13
–3%
Other
6,141,006
20
8,866,389
27
44%
Wildlife Watching, Total
51,133,555
100
54,961,547
100
7%
Trip-Related
14,420,170
32
17,274,675
31
20%
Equipment
25,954,939
57
27,222,196
50
5%
Wildlife-Watching equipment
11,054,094
28
11,323,179
21
2%
Auxiliary equipment
1,157,027
3
1,555,374
3
34%
Special equipment
13,743,818
26
14,343,643
26
4%
Other
10,758,446
11
10,464,677
19
–3%
Note: 2011’s expenditures do not include plantings for hunting, since that item was not asked in 2006.
*Not tested for significance level. Standard errors were not available at the time of printing.
Note: 2006 estimates in 2011 dollars.
Table 11. Comparision of Wildlife-Related Recreation Expenditures, 2006 and 2011
(U.S. population 16 years old and older. Dollars in thousands.)2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation: National Overview 19
Activity and Type of Expenditure
2001
2011
2001–2011
% Change*
Dollars
Percent
Dollars
Percent
Total Sportsperson
89,212,543
100
89,299,767
100
0%
Fishing, Total
45,427,422
100
41,769,129
100
–8%
Trip-Related
18,684,876
41
21,789,465
52
17%
Equipment
21,626,728
48
15,506,433
37
–28%
Fishing equipment
5,886,975
13
6,141,895
15
4%
Auxiliary equipment
919,262
2
1,106,865
3
20%
Special equipment
14,820,490
33
8,257,673
20
–44%
Other
5,115,817
11
4,473,231
11
–13%
Hunting, Total
26,276,913
100
33,260,066
100
27%
Trip-Related
6,696,252
25
10,421,189
31
56%
Equipment
13,209,829
50
13,972,490
42
6%
Hunting equipment
5,815,705
22
7,738,324
23
33%
Auxiliary equipment
1,533,502
6
1,844,880
6
20%
Special equipment
5,860,623
22
4,389,286
13
–25%
Other
6,370,831
24
8,866,389
27
39%
Wildlife Watching, Total
48,974,477
100
54,961,547
100
12%
Trip-Related
10,406,261
21
17,274,675
31
66%
Equipment
30,010,533
61
27,222,196
50
–9%
Wildlife-Watching equipment
9,375,556
19
11,323,179
21
21%
Auxiliary equipment
913,973
2
1,555,374
3
70%
Special equipment
19,721,004
40
14,343,643
26
–27%
Other
8,557,685
17
10,464,677
19
22%
Note: 2011’s expenditures do not include plantings for hunting, since that item was not asked in 2001.
*Not tested for significance level. Standard errors were not available at the time of printing.
Note: 2001 estimates in 2011 dollars.
Table 12. Comparison of Wildlife-Related Recreation Expenditures: 2001 and 2011
(U.S. population 16 years old and older. Dollars in thousands.)20 2011 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation: National Overview
U.S. Department of the Interior
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
Cover photo: USFWS